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Pelvic Organ Prolapse

What is Pelvic Organ Prolapse?

Pelvic organ prolapse is a disorder where the pelvic floor organs descend from their place. Pelvic floor organs include bladder, uterus, vagina, small bowels, and rectum. Cystocele (prolapse of the bladder into the vagina), Urethrocele (prolapse of the urethra), Uterine prolapse, Vaginal vault prolapse, Enterocele (small bowels prolapse) and Rectocele (rectum prolapse) are different types of pelvic organ prolapse.

What causes Pelvic Organ Prolapse?

Increased stress on abdomen leads to pelvic organ prolapse. Some of the causes are:

  • Pregnancy and childbirth
  • A long-term cough
  • Pelvic organ cancers
  • Removal of uterus
  • Obesity
  • Constipation

Genetic makeup also plays a role in pelvic organ prolapse.

What are the symptoms of Pelvic Organ Prolapse?

Symptoms of pelvic organ prolapse depend on the organ that is drooping:

  • The feeling of fullness in the pelvic area
  • Spotting or bleeding
  • Feeling that something is coming out of the vagina
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Persistent urge to urinate
  • Leakage of urine
  • Lower back pain
  • Constipation

How is Pelvic Organ Prolapse diagnosed?

Tests that are run to diagnose pelvic organ prolapse are:

  • CT scan of the pelvis
  • Ultrasound of pelvis
  • MRI of pelvis
  • Urinary tract X-ray  

What are the treatments of Pelvic Organ Prolapse?

Treatment of pelvic organ prolapse depends on the severity of the condition.

Mechanical treatments

Provide support to the drooping organs by inserting a pessary into the vagina

Surgical treatment

Repair or remove the drooping organs

Behavioural treatment

Strengthening pelvic floor muscles through physical exercises

 

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